Britons’ Educational Activities and Educational Transfer to China in the Qing Dynasty before the Wuxu Reform
The aim of this article is to explore how British educational experiences were transferred to China before the Wuxu Reform. Since 1843, British educational experiences were introduced via official and private ways. Before 1858, some British missionaries had established charity schools to teach Scriptures in Chinese for the lower class at trade ports. After that, foreigners were allowed to travel, preach, and establish churches and schools in inland. Some well-organized schools were established in Shanghai, and few fee-paying English studios were established for children from well-being families. Their loose connections had to fight with stronger anti- Christianity and anti-foreignism. Besides, some British missionaries taught English at Governmental schools but evangelical preaching was forbidden. Therefore, the process of British educational transfer was a trying, individual, unplanned and un-systemized one, less supported by the Japanese government after 1894. Furthermore, disputes existed among different protestant missions on taking education as means for evangelic preaching. After the l890 Missionary Conference, consensus was made. Compared with their counterparts in America, the number of British mission schools had increased but had not been systemized, and had less achievement, which had made it more difficult to diffuse the British educational experiences.
|關鍵詞||戊戌變法、英國教育、教會學校、教育轉移、Wuxu Reform、British education、mission schools、educational transfer|