Social Psychological Situationism vs. Virtue Ethics: A Debate about Character and Its Implications for Character Education
近來備受討論的品格辯論與品格教育密切相關，因為受到社會心理學情境論的實驗結果所啟發的一派哲學家試圖挑戰Aristotle 的品格觀，而後者正是當代品格教育主要的哲學基礎。面對情境論的挑戰，致力維護Aristotle 品格觀的德行倫理學家表示，情境論所操弄的行為主義式的品格觀是有問題的，在完全以外顯行為與跨情境的行為一致性做為觀察重點，卻忽視行動者內在道德心理的情況下，它非但無法適當反映，遑論測試Aristotle 整體論式的品格觀，甚至有誤將品格特質化約成行為的氣質性傾向之虞，因而扭曲品格的本質。儘管情境論的挑戰並未成功，但它對品格教育至少有如下五點啟示，包括：一、品格教育需關照（道德）品格的完整內涵―外顯行為與內在道德心理；二、基本歸因偏誤彰顯品格特質歸因與評量的難度與複雜性；三、完整的品格特質的罕見性促使我們反省品格特質歸因與評量的適當用詞；四、情境因素微妙的行為影響力有助於解釋道德現象及改善道德行動；五、情境管理與品格建構應被視為促成道德行為的夥伴。
The currently heated debate about character is highly relevant to character education， since a camp of philosophers inspired by the empirical findings of situationism in social psychology purport to question an Aristotelian conception of character which fuels contemporary character education. This challenge is countered by some virtue ethicists who respond that this behaviourist conception of character is problematic .Overwhelmingly focusing on one's overt behaviour at the cost of his moral psychology， it risk reducing character traits to mere behavioural dispositions. In addition to， distorting the nature of character， it does not have sufficient resources to represent and even test a more appropriate holistic Aristotelian conception of character. Despite its failure， situationism does indeed have some practical implications for character education. Firstly， character education must consider the concept of (moral) character to the full －that is， both its behavioural dimension and the subject's moral psychology and functioning. Secondly， the fundamental attribution error highlights the difficulty and complexity of making character trait attributions and evaluations.Thirdly， the empirical rarity of global character traits compels one to reflect on what the appropriate language is in which character trait attributions and evaluations can be made. Fourthly， the subtle influence of some situational factors on behavior helps explain some moral phenomena and improve moral action. Finally， situation management and character construction are collaborative in promoting moral behaviour.
|關鍵詞||品格教育、情境論、德行倫理學、character education、situationism、virtue ethics|