A Re-exploration of Stratification and Efficacy in Cram Schooling: An Extension of the Wisconsin Model
Previous studies of cram schooling have focused primarily on stratification and efficacy. However， they have fallen short of the depth of their discussions. Concerning stratification， previous studies have not considered possible intervening variables caused by socioeconomic status of family that might influence children's attendance at cram schools. Moreover， these studies have perhaps overestimated the efficacy of cram schools. This research focused on two unresolved issues regarding the stratification and efficacy of cram schools， taking the Wisconsin model into account and using data collected from the Taiwan Education Panel Survey， to develop a well-defined research framework to reinvestigate the research questions above. It was found that higher socioeconomic status of a family led to higher educational expectations of parents and children. This in turn led to an increase in children's attendance at cram schools. The non-linear influence， first ascending and then descending， of student attendance at cram schools on academic achievement， decreased greatly after the variables of educational expectations of parents and children were held constant. Because previous studies probably overestimated the efficacy of cram schooling， this study may help dispel the myths surrounding the efficacy of cram schools.
|關鍵詞||學科補習、教育期望、威斯康辛模型、cram schooling、educational expectations、the Wisconsin model|